Accretion in the outer solar nebula differs from the terrestrial
planet region, due to lower orbital velocities and larger masses
of the first planetary embryos that form. The first "oligarchic"
embryos that grow beyond the "snow line" can scatter smaller bodies
outward. These scattered bodies have their orbits circularized
in the outer nebula by dynamical friction. As they are much more
massive than the indigenous planetesimals, they can act as seed
bodies for rapid runaway growth. The scattering process implies
that the number and orbital spacing of outer planets are stochastic
rather than deterministic.
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